Tuesday, 18 October 2011

Paper/Craft, Labour or Play and Ambiance: 6/6

In class today we got into group of which activities fitted into specific frameworks.
As monopoly deal is a game is come under the framework of Play.
Within the framework of play we then considered how ergonomics and affordances fit in to the activity we have chosen to use.
Games come under the occupation of Play. Huizinga (1949) believes that in play there is something "at play" which transcends the immediate needs of life and imparts meaning to the action. All play means something....

We also briefly covered Ambiance.
Ambiance  describes the feeling created by a particular nature of an activity when it is being done for itself. 
If I were to describe ambiance whilst playing monopoly deal I would say that I feel competitive, relaxed but aware of what I am doing and anxious to see what my apponents next move will be. After playing the game I gain a feeling on contentment for doing something that I enjoy (especially if I have won!).
These are some examples of comment I have made about of students activity blogs

Comment I made to Alex about her blog on Ergonomics
Comment I made to Paula about her blog on Affordances
                                        Comment I made to Kate about her blog on affordance:
                                        Comment I made to Laura about her blog on cooking as Labour

References used throughout the six blogs:

Arendt, H. (1958). The human condition. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Burkhardt MA (1989). Spirituality: an analysis of the concept. Holistic Nursing Practice 3, 69–77.
Caulton, R & Dickson, R. (2007). Whats going on? Finding an explanation for what we do. In J. Creek & A. Lawson-Porter (Eds.), Contemporary issues in occupational therapy (pp. 87-114). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
 Christiansen, C. H. & Townsend E. A. (2004). An introduction to occupation: The art and science of  living. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Dictionary.com (2011). Ambiance. Retrieved 18th of October from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ambiance
 Hagedorn, R. (2000). Tools of practice in occupational therapy. A structured approach to core skills and processes. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
 Huizinga, J. (1949). Homo ludens: a study of the play element in culture. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Original work published 1944). 
Webster, M. (1996). Aesthetic. Retrieved from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/aesthetics

Monday, 17 October 2011

Affordance of Aesthetics and Spirituality: 5/6

Aesthetics  is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty (Webster, 1996).
is a type of affordance that refers to the sense of beauty within an activity.
When playing Monopoly Deal I like to play in a comfortable environment where I am able to have enough room to sit and place my cards out without clutter. I like things to be neat so when I place my cards down I lay them out evenly and in a neat, straight pile. This is the complete opposite to my opponent as she spreads her cards out and does not keep hers in order like I do. This effects the look of the game which bothers me slightly. As long as I keep my area tidy I am not to bothered by others.
A good hand of card is also aesthetically pleasing and I find myself smiling when I see are card I having been hoping to get.
The most properties that I put down means the closer I am to winning the game, so it is aesthetically pleasing to see more property cards than less in front of me.

Spirituality:  is described by Brukhardt (1989) as a journey of lived experience, characterised by a greater sense of peace, meaning, purpose and connectedness.
Personally the meaning of spiritually is anything in my life that is meaningful to me and gives me a sense of worth and within myself.
When I think of playing monopoly deal I get excited! I cannot wait to pick Sammi* up from school so we can start playing together. It is meaningful for me to play this game as I feel relaxed and confident in my abilities. It has now become an important routine for Sammi* and I to play this together each time I work with her. This game connects us in a way that we both love to play it so it is something we have in common, breaking down the 6year age barrier.

Burkhardt MA (1989). Spirituality: an analysis of the concept. Holistic Nursing Practice 3, 69–77.

Webster, M. (1996). Aesthetic. Retrieved from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/aesthetics

Thursday, 29 September 2011

Labour and Work: 4/6

This post is around Labour and Work and how different they are, what they mean to me and how my activity relates to them.
Labour is the activity which corresponds to the biological process of the human body (Arendt, 1958).
My understanding of Labour is an activity that is essential to human survival.
Work is the activity which corresponds to the unnaturalness of human existence (Arendt, 1958).
My understanding of work is an activity that is chosen by the individual and not essential to survive.

Labour comes under Maslow's Biological and Physiological needs as displayed below:

Image retrieved 29/09/11 from: http://sockbook.referata.com/w/images/MaslowsHierarchy.jpg

Monopoly deal comes under the category of work. It is a game that is not essential for me to survive and is something that I choose to do.
I could look at it from the perspective of I play monopoly deal at work to teach my client new skills and at work I earn money and without money I wouldn't be able to afford specific things I need to survive e.g food and rent for shelter. I choose to that certain activity when I work to teach therefore monopoly deal comes under the category of work not labour.

In the tutorial Hilary asked us to think about what would happen if our kind of work or labour was taken away from us:
In terms of affordances I would lose:
Communication: Social interaction between both my client I work with and also those of friends and family members I play with.
Connection: I use monopoly deal to connect with Sammi* and to teach her her skills. I connect with both family and friends by bringing us together after a long day to play.
Memories: The opportunity to create new memories and I may also forget how to play over time.


Arendt, H. (1958). The human condition. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Sunday, 25 September 2011

Ergonomics: 3/6

Ergonomics can be described by the "ability to constantly make slight invisible adjustments to an activity to adapt to the needs of those taking part and ensure that it continues to work for its purpose" (Caulton and Dickson, 2007).
Hagedorn (2000) states that the principles of ergonomics are based on the concept of 'fitting the task to the man'. 
I understand ergonomics to be the changing of a task to ensure the person is able to perform what is required in the task to their full potential.
In relation the ergonomics and my experience of playing monopoly deal I have had to make various ergonomic changes to the games to suit each different person that I play with.
We were sitting in the lounge playing monopoly deal but a few members of my family were around, this made Sammi* feel uncomfortable and was making it hard for us to concentrate on the game. I decided to change the environment for Sammi* to make the game easier by taking her to a quieter part of the house where she was able to concentrate and allow us to interact without distraction. Instead of telling Sammi* to concentrate with the noise around her I adapted the environment, allowing her perform the game to her full potential. The new room bright as the sun was pouring in, making it hard to see the cards we were playing with, I got up and pulled the curtain to block out most of the sun, I sat back down to play now able to see our cards easily. 
Another ergonomic factor that I take into account when playing monopoly is that everyone learns at different paces. Each time I teach someone how to play I need consider the skill level of the person so I adapt to how I teach everyone in a different way. When teaching  people I work with intellectual disabilities I adapt the way I teach them compared to how I would teach one of my family members that understand without difficulty.  


Caulton, R & Dickson, R. (2007). Whats going on? Finding an explanation for what we do. In J. Creek & A. Lawson-Porter (Eds.), Contemporary issues in occupational therapy (pp. 87-114). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Hagedorn, R. (2000). Tools of practice in occupational therapy. A structured approach to core skills and processes. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Tuesday, 13 September 2011

Affordances in Monopoly deal: 2/6

Hagedorn (2000, p.51) describes affordance to be "anything which the environment can offer the individual which is pertinent to the role challenge and can facilitate role competence".  
According to Christiansen & Townsend (2004, p. 22) "affordances are environmental properties that both induce and supported goal-directed behaviour". "Affords do not have to be visible, known or even desirable to affect behaviour".

Whilst playing a game of monoploy deal with Sammi* I care about her as I want her to be able to successfully attend to her money and know how much she has a needs to be giving me. I am very responsive to Sammi* and her needs during the game, I am always thinking of how I will play my cards to her advantage but still wanting to challenge her at the same time. I show complete respect towards Sammi* during the game as I know she has difficulty when it comes the adding up money, I will never push her and respect her when she asks for help to add money. The primary relationship is I am the teacher and she is the student. But if she has any tips for me I am always willing to listen. There is no limitation to the capacity of expression of individuality. For my well-being it is important to me as games are a way for me to relax and have fun.
I have already sacrificed my time and spending time with others to play this game with Sammi* and teach her new skills whilst playing. Continuing this activity will be sacrificing more of my time. I will often let Sammi* win to let her have a feeling of accomplishment. There are both verbal and nonverbal communications occurring during the game, also body language is displayed e.g. a smile for a good card. Monopoly deal is always played with someone else or in a group it is not an individual game which is something I like as I enjoy interacting with others.
Christiansen, C. H. & Townsend E. A. (2004). An introduction to occupation: The art and science of  living. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Hagedorn, R. (2000). Tools for practice in occupational therapy. A structured approach to core skills and processes. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Monopoly Deal

This is a good clip that explain what monopoly deal is all about

I use monopoly deal with a girl we will call her Sammi* I work with who has autism. She would like to learn general life skills and one that she is struggling with is money and socialising. I have used monopoly deal with her to teach her different skills around money and at the same time socialise with her. I will expanding more on this throughout my other blogs :).

Tuesday, 6 September 2011

Semester 2 of Participation in Occupation 2: 1/6

Semester 2 has just started and a new paper Participation in Occupation 2 is now the new focus of this blog.
Over the next 2 months I will be posting about my personal experience of doing an activity. 
The activity I am focusing on is monopoly deal which comes under the category of games (play):
There are three classes of games:
Monopoly deal is a combination of all of these.

Games are an important aspect of my life; it’s a great way for social interaction and bonding. 
I have recently started a new job working with 2 young girls who have intellectual disabilities.
I have used games as a way of bonding and teaching them new skills such as money strategies using monopoly. They have also taught me games in return which helps them feel needed within the game process.
I also play games with family and friends it can be a good way to interact and socialize with one another.
In the past games have been used in my life to teach me new skills, meet new people, interact and most importantly have fun!

Key words to describe what games mean to me personally:

What games mean to me as an OT student:
Each time I learn a new skill from playing games I’m able to pass them on to clients. Every game has a purpose to it and can also be adapted to be used as interventions with clients.
As a student all the study and work can get a bit too much sometimes and games are a way of relaxing and refocusing. 
Remembering a certain piece of information could be made into a game to help remember.

Practical Considerations:
·         Cards
·         Will need someone else to play with
·         Will I have enough time to play with all the study

Sunday, 10 April 2011

Tutorial Eight: Assistive technology

Definition of assistive technology (referenced): "Assistive technology's are employed primarily to contribute to successful functional outcomes for persons with disabilities" (Cook & Hussey, 1995).

Own definitions: a whole range of devices that enable people with disabilities to overcome the problems that they are faces with everyday.

One piece of equipment introduced in the assistive technology tutorial:
Go Talk 20+:
Size- 230mm x 305mm x 286mm
Cost- $420
Functions-  The GoTalk 20+ is an ACC device which stands for augmentative and alternative communication. It is an excellent tool for augmentative communication and curriculum enrichment. It is powerful with 100 possible messages - 20 message keys each with five distinct levels. Record a total of 15 minutes of messages with great sound quality (Willison, 2009).
How the Go Talk 20+ increases occupational capacity for the user?
During the tutorial we used the Go Talk 20+ to give one of our peers instructions on how to make and cook pancakes. It provided a step by step guide on how to achieve a successful pancake.
This device gives its user visual cues by the pictures drawn on the touch pad. It increases occupational capacity by helping the user to communicate to others through using it giving them a voice to speak their mind and become more independent, lets others relay cues and messages to the user to enhance memory and reminders for everyday activities that the user may not remember to do without the reminder of the Go Talk 20+.

Example of the Go Talk 20+ being used from online sources:
this video is a demo of the Go Talk 20+

http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/product/34189/popup this link is of two videos on a professional opinion and another entailing the use of the Go Talk 20+

Cook, A., & Hussey, S. (1995). Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice. St Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
Willison, T. (2009). Mobility and Disability Devices. Retrieved from http://www.star-educational.co.nz/view_products.php?cat=56

Tuesday, 29 March 2011

Tutorial Seven: Linking to blogs of interest and exchanging comments

For this tutorial I had to link 5 occupational therapy blogs to my blog and post a comment on one of them giving evidence that I have done this...... here is what I posted and the comment I received back:

Tuesday, 22 March 2011

Tutorial Six: The internet and online communties

I am using Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) again as my topic: 

Provide the web addresses and a hyper link for the three online communities you have chosen:

Provide a brief description of each community:
The MDJunction Rheumatoid arthritis support group is a community of patients, family members and friends dedicated to dealing with Rheumatoid Arthritis, together.
MyRACentral is a way of making connection, asking a question, sharing a concern, giving advice or just having a chat. Their message boards connect people with a community of people who understand where they are coming from and what they are going through.
YouTube provides a way for people who have arthritis, know someone with arthritis, want to know more about arthritis, anyone really- to post videos, comments and discuss.

What services are provided on each site?
MDJuction  Rheumatiod arthritis support group:
How interactive is this site? this site is very interact it clearly shows that people are frequently making posts and supporting each other. There are 640 members.
How and what can people contribute? They can contribute- articles, videos, diaries and posts about rheumatoid arthritis.
How interactive is this site? The site is quite interact with the latest post being 2 days ago on the 21/03/2011 which shows people are access the site and making posts.
How and what can people contribute? People are about to make their own forums or make post of comments towards others forums and posts they have made.
How interactive is this site? This site is extremely interactive with 3,280 results appearing for Rheumatoid arthritis alone. Most of the videos have comments about them.

How and what can people contribute? People can contribute by joining YouTube, they can either upload a
video of their own about rheumatoid arthritis experience or knowledge etc or they can just comment on others videos they have made. Some people may like to just watch the video for support or information.

Why do people choose to contribute to each community?
People choose to contribute to these communities as it is a way in which they can express how they are feeling about RA, information they want others to know or that people need to know, discuss different opinion or ideas that people hold, share knowledge about RA.

What is it that they are seeking?
They are seeking a way of support from others that have RA or maybe people that just want to add advice on knowledge that they have about RA.

Is information shared one way or reciprocal?
Both MyRACentral and The MDJunction Rheumatoid arthritis support group are reciprocal but YouTube is not guaranteed that people will reciprocate.

Examples of  the type of topics being discussed:
MDJunction examples:
Jackie: what about a laugh room? We all know the bad days, the painful days, the dark days so what about somewhere to go just to read something really stupid and funny. I have a lot of pain today in my neck, shoulders ,wrists and feet and i could cry but i want to laugh instead,, so here goes for all you coffee drinkers out there, I INVITE YOU IN TO LAUGH TIL IT HURTS!!!!!

Her reply from one of the many responses:
From progrmrgurl: I really love this laugh room idea!! It's so much fun! Thanks!

MyRACentral examples:

Posted 01-18-2010 02:28 AM
I was diagnosed with RA in December 09 and I'm scared to death. It's robbing me of everything important in my life. I just want my life back. Any ideas of how to deal with the hurt, anger, and depression would be welcome. Daze
You can make the difference!
His reply from one of the many responses:
Posted 01-27-2010 06:04 AM
Welcome, and here's a start. Sorry you're here!!! But glad you're seeking help. Diagnosis comes at all ages. Two of us here, me and Mac, are in our 60's. Many of the people who post here are vigorous somewhat younger people in their 30's trying to raise kids, and work at the same time, and my heart just goes out to them especially. Kageyd.
Youtube examples:
Here is a video post by a woman about her experience of Rheumatoid arthritis:
This is one of the responses out of the five that she received:
that really helped me with my research for school...thanks..

Tutorial Five: Video Production Sessions

Provide a brief summary of the services offered by Youtube:
"YouTube is a popular video hosting and sharing service that was purchased by Google in 2006.
The service lets users view and upload video files. In addition to hosting videos, the service lets users rate videos, add comments, and subscribe to their favorite producers" (Karch, 2011).
 The registration is free and it is not required to view videos, but you do need to register for some features such as uploading your own videos and commenting and rating others (Karch, 2011).
You can access Youtube via other website or blog spots by not even having to go onto the actual Youtube website, it is very simple to hyperlink (Karch, 2011).
You can find Youtube at http://www.youtube.com/

Introduce a chosen topic of interest drawn from your fieldwork experience, an OT practice area or a personal occupation:
Rheumatoid Arthritis is my topic chosen that I experienced on my first fieldwork placement.
These are five different sources of online video content to help explain Rheumatoid Arthritis:

This first video is of a rheumatologist describing the effects of rheumatoid arthritis.

The second video is of a lady who has lived with rheumatoid arthritis for more than 10years, she shares her experience.

The third video is how someone cured their rheumatoid arthritis and got their life back.

The forth video is a video on exercises for rheumatoid arthritis.

The filth video is about the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.

Karch, M. (2011). Youtube explained- Overview of the google video sharing tool. Retrieved from http://google.about.com/od/moreaboutgoogleaps/p/youtubeprofile.htm


Tuesday, 15 March 2011

Explains OT

Tutorial Four:Video Production Sessions

We were set a task to make a 30 second film and edit it on windows live movie maker. Then we had to upload it onto our blogs.
There was a lot of frustration with the clips not uploading etc but we got there in the end!
This has been a great learning experience of video production.
By using planning we were able to produce a short film quickly and efficiently.

Tutorial Three: Blogger Part One
During this tutorial we set up our individual blogs as hosted on Blogger.com. The tasks we were required to perform included- blog design, profile information, provide a title and description for the blog, set privacy boundaries and linked to the course blog.
I found this really interesting as I have never set up a blog before so it was good to learn how to do the fine tuning of blogging, for in the future when I may need to set up another blog.

Tutorial Two: Digital Imaging

Ways that digital images are stored transferred and manipulated using information technology:
Hardware and software I'm familiar with: Memory sticks, hard drives, adobe
Three examples of the use of digital imaging to provide information and recording:
1. Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/. Facebook provides users with a way of uploading there digital images for others to view and comment on.
2. Myspace: http://www.myspace.com/. Myspace provides that same as facebook but they are slightly different in the way various parts of them work e.g uploading photos, different homepages etc. Facebook is also a lot newer than myspace.
3. Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/. Youtube is a way of uploading videos of digital imaging for others to view for their own entertainment or information.

"A new technology is rarely superior to an old one in every future"
Discuss this statement in relation to digital camera technology. The pluses and minuses digital camera technology holds in relation to more traditional film based cameras?
* Cheaper for printing
*new camera's are more disposable
*with new camera's you can lose the image with a press of a button
*can store a lot more photo's
*very simple to capture and transfer images.
*dark room developing with old camera's
*older camera's are manual, new camera's are manual and auto.

Given the prevalence of image capturing and distribution using IT, what ethical issues may arise with their use?
*ownership (the person who owns the camera owns that photo).
* informed consent.

Briefly discuss some of the ways that digital images could, or are, being used in occupational therapy practice:
*photos for use of treatment and interventions
*visual changes and progress of client's
*photos of events that the client might need to remember
* there are videos on YouTube demonstrating what occupational therapy is all about and also one demonstrating a transfer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yiXb1dz0KTw

Tuesday, 8 March 2011

family x

me and vic


ray ray

new years eve


my sister and I

mangos 21st

Tuesday, 1 March 2011

Tutorial One: Information Technology and Ethical Issues

Intro: The focus of my first post is on Information Technology and Ethical Issues.

Definition of Information Technology/ Information Communications Technology:
"The use of computers, telecommunication, etc in electronic processing, storing, retrieving and sending information" (Allen, 2004).
Definition in my words: Electronic technology that stores and sends information to other electronic devices.

IT in everyday life and society: People of most society's will all have some form of information technology. Mobile phones, computers, laptops, IPODS, facebook http://www.facebook.com/, blog sites such as blogger http://www.blogger.com/, flicker http://www.flickr.com/ and tumblr http://www.tumblr.com/. Youtube is a very common site used to post videos http://www.youtube.com/.
It has become very common to use these various information technologies to stay in touch with others, express yourself and search different entertainment.

Devices and systems that I feel comfortable and competent using: 
I feel comfortable using IT but i do not feel I am completely competent using all aspects of it.
I am very familiar with the social networking site and blogging etc but when it comes to more technical sites I get confused and give up easily.
I am both comfortable and competent using mobile phones but am not when it comes to using computers as I do not feel like I know everything I should about them and there various programs.
I feel that this course and browsing around different IT devices and systems will help to expand my use of IT.

How is IT used in Occupational Therapy Practice?
IT is used by OT's to store information and records of clients. Information technology is used for assessments, occupational performances and tools and interventions for treatment of clients.

What are some of the ways you can envisage IT becoming a potential tool of practise?
Griffiths et al (2003) as cited in Verdonch & Ryan (2008) states that Internet applications can be useful during therapy sessions or, later, as tools for enhancing functional independence.
Griffiths & Gray (2005) as cited in Verdonch & Ryan (2008) believe that computer games can be useful tools for treatment of physical, cognitive and behavioural occupational performance components.
I feel that technology is helping occupational therapy advance by using the various potential it provides. OT's can now work with clients on improving their self-care for example a client who does not have easy access to facilities due to not being able to drive or transport is an issue, there are online websites that the client can do all from the comfort of the home. There is online shopping http://www.thewarehouse.co.nz/red/, online supermarkets http://www.foodtown.co.nz/ and internet banking http://westpac.co.nz/.
Leisure and socialisation via technology is made available to clients with internet site such as  http://www.facebook.com/ ( a social networking site), they can blog about their life and possibly even struggles that they are going through on http://www.blogger.com/home, http://www.flickr.com/ and various other sites. Youtube http://www.youtube.com/ is a commonly used site which OT's could possibly use to show the client examples of tools they are wanting them to practice of even just for their own leisure providing entertainment, or casting their own videos.
There are even sites that can provide the client with opportunity for business of buying and selling eg. http://www.trademe.co.nz/ and  http://www.ebay.com/.

Issues and existing around OT's adoption of IT systems and tools:
Occupational therapists need to use their clinical reasoning and judgment to assess the possible risks associated with each technology. The dangers on the internet are highly publicised and there is a need to be aware of these, especially when dealing with vulnerable clients. Negative affects, such as aggression and addiction , have been associated with computer gaming.

Why I feel a great understanding and use of IT will help us in our practice and daily lives:
- advancing rapidly in daily life and we need to keep up with how the world is rapidly developing from the use of technology.
- new generations are growing up around technology and they will be the people that we are treating in the next for decades.
- can assist with advancing and improving treatment we provide to clients.
- if we do not have a great understanding of how to use IT we will not use it correctly and to its full potential for the client to benefit from what IT provides.

What ethical implications arise from capturing, sharing and transferring of information via IT devices (e.g. mobile phones) or systems (e.g. internet)?
- the information is not completely safe when being sent from one device to another.
- consent from others when posting photos of people other than yourself on the internet or taking pictures on your mobile phone.
- schools need consent to post pictures and information about students on the internet, that also goes for clients we work with.
- unless your site is locked and only certain users can access it then you need to be aware that anyone can access your information.

Definition of Intellectual Property:
Intellectual property (IP), is a term referring to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets in some jurisdictions (Wikipedia, 2011).
I understand Intellectual property to be ownership of a persons own thoughts, creations and anything they have potentially developed themselves from their mind.
Relating IT and IP to OT: when an OT is documenting clinical notes into the computer or online to other MDT professionals they always date, name and if they can sign and designate their documents making it the organisation they work for, intellectual property. 

Definition of Social Justice:
Social justice generally refers to the idea of creating a society or institution that is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that recognizes the dignity of every human being
My understanding of social justice is equal rights and opportunities are made for every member of a society.
Relating IT and Social justice to OT: We need to be careful as OT's to treat our clients as equal in society. When working with clients to introduce them to tools using information technology we need to understand that everyone works at different levels and treat them equally and provide them with just as much opportunity as the other clients.

Definition of Informed Consent:
Legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action (Wikipedia, 2011).
My understanding of informed consent is that a person must agree to an action or information to revealed about themselves by another.
Relating IT and Informed consent to OT: As OT's we need to make sure we always gain a client's consent before proceeding with treatment and documenting their information in an information technology system.

Allen, R. (consultant editor). (2004).The penguin english dictionary. London: Penguin Books

Verdonck, M., & Ryan, S. (2008). Mainstream Technology as an Occupational Therapy Tool: Technophobe or Techno geek?. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(6), 253-256.

Wikipedia. (2011). Informed Consent. Retrieved March,10th, 2011 from:

Wikipedia. (2011). Intellectual Property. Retrieved March, 9, 2011 from:

Wikipedia. (2011). Social Justice. Retrieved March, 9, 2011 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_justice